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What is Mail Server?

Mail server can be simply explain as a computer System that send and receives emails, and definition for the same would be

“A server which handles & delivers e-mail via network over the Internet”. Working process of a mail server looks very simple but back end process is just a huge network where mail server can receive e-mails from client computers and can be deliver them to other mail servers, it (mail server) can also deliver e-mails to client computers. Client computer can be stated as computer where you can read your email.

What are the types of mail server ?

We can break down Mail servers into two important categories “Outgoing Mail Servers” and “Incoming Mail servers”.
Outgoing mail servers can be called as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ).
Incoming mail servers have two main varieties

a) Post Office Protocol (POP3), best for storing sent and received messages on PCs’ local hard drives. POP3 servers store messages over servers, too, which is a lot more convenient.
b)Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), which always store copies of messages on servers.

How Email are sending process take place?

Following are short and basic steps which explain Email Sending Process

a) Once message is composed we hit to send button then comes the role of your email client it may be Outlook Express or Gmail, it connects to your domain’s SMTP server. A standard example would be

b) Here your email client communicates with SMTP server, giving it your email address, the recipient’s email address, the message body and any attachments.

c) SMTP server processes recipient’s email address which work on its domain. Now here comes the tow cases

    Case#1: Here If the domain name is same as the sender's, the message  directly routed 
over domain's POP3 or IMAP server. Here there is no routing between servers is needed.

    Case#2: If the domain founds to be different, though, the SMTP server will have to communicate with the other domain's server.

d) Here sender’s SMTP servers need to communicate with the Domain Name server i.e DNS, to find the recipient’s server.
DNS simply tanslate recipient’s email domain name into an IP address.

e) SMTP server has the recipient’s IP address it connect to its SMTP server. This process is not usually done directly, though; instead, the message is routed along a series of unrelated SMTP servers until it arrives at its destination. the message is routed along a series of unrelated SMTP servers until it arrives at its destination.

f) Now comes the role of recipient’s SMTP server which scans the incoming message if recognizes the domain and the user name, it forwards the message along to the domain’s POP3 or IMAP server. From there it is placed in a sendmail queue until the recipient’s email client allows it to be downloaded. At that point, the message can be read by the recipient.

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