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SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol it is used by Mail servers & other Message Transfer Agents to send and receive mail messages. In short, SMTP can be described as a communication protocol for electronic mail transmission. All most all e-mail systems which send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another; the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP.

SMTP is integrated into an email client application, Further, it is composed of four key components:

Mail user agent (MUA): Local user which is client end utility 
Mail submission agent (MSA): Server which acts as  Mail submission agent
Mail transfer agent (MTA): 
Mail delivery agent (MDA)

SMTP Initiate a session within User and server,
MTA and MDA provide domain searching and local delivery services.

Steps to find your SMTP server:

a) Open your command prompt
b) Type ping and your SMTP server name
Example: ping

How does email work?

a) Sender composes or types a message using the email client i.e email address on their computer.
b) When Sender sends the message, the text and attachments get uploaded to the SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) server as outgoing mail.
c) Here all outgoing messages wait in the outgoing mail queued) Till the time messages wait in the outgoing mail queue, SMTP server communicates with the DNS (Domain Name Server) to find out where the recipient’s email server is located.

d) Suppose If SMTP server finds the recipient’s email server, it will transfer the message and attachments. If recipient’s server can’t be found, the sender will get a “Mail Failure” notification in their inbox.

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