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In this world of Digitization, every day we create 2.5 quintillion bytes of data at our current pace. The pace is only accelerating within the growth of the Internet of Things very well know as IoT. Today we have 3.2 billion people using the Internet so we can just thing the number of data that we transfer or create every day. The process of data transfer from one node to another node is all because of computer Networking. Here node is known as a communication endpoint. A Computer Network can be defined as a digital telecommunication network to share resources between nodes via computer devices.

Router :  A router is considered a layer-3 device. Router can be define as a small electronic device that sits between your modem and computer. Role of router is to collect the information from Modem and deliver the same to Computer. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different IP networks.

Port: Port is known as the endpoint of communication in the network.
Port can also be define as logical construct which help to identify a particular process or a type of network service
A port number is a 16-bit unsigned integer it range from 0 to 65535.
For TCP port number reserved and is 0.
For UDP, the source port is optional and a value of zero means no port. 

Port number Assignment
20   File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Data Transfer
21 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Command Control
22 Secure Shell (SSH) Secure Login
23 Telnet remote login service, unencrypted text messages
25 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) E-mail routing
53 Domain Name System (DNS) service
67, 68 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)    
80 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) used in the World Wide Web
110 Post Office Protocol (POP3)
119 Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
123 Network Time Protocol (NTP)
143 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) Management of digital mail
161 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
194 Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
443 HTTP Secure (HTTPS) HTTP over TLS/SSL

Hub: Hub is an electronic hardware device that runs a computer network.
A hub contains multiple ports.
A common connection point of a device in a network is called as a Hub. 
To connect segments of a LAN we use a HUB. 
When packets lands on one port, it is copied to the other ports so as to all segments of the LAN can see all packets, without looking at IP address for the data’s destination.
There are three types if Network HUB, active, passive, and intelligent.
Hub is simple Hardware and can be configured easily.

Switch:  A switch can be defined as a device in a computer system network that connects other devices together. 
To enable communication between different networked devices, multiple data cables are plugged into a switch.
Switches are responsible to manage the flow of data over a network by transmitting a received network packet.
Every device connected in the network to a switch can be identified by its network address. 

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